Format your Data (Product)

Your catalog data must be properly formatted in order for Bloomreach to ingest it.

The catalog data format is a modified JSON Patch focusing on a subset of operations and path levels. You can test your data with this JSON Patch viewer and validator.

Products

A product is defined as an item that is sold on your site. Each catalog entry that contains all the data for a single product is called a record.

To add product data to your catalog, you must first format the data in the Bloomreach product record format. A single product record is modeled as a JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) object identified by a product_id that contains attributes, and optional variants and views properties. You are not required to declare variants and views if your catalog does not use them.

A single catalog cannot contain two products with the same product_id (that is, product_id values should be unique within a catalog). The product_id should be identical to the pid parameter in the pixel.

Here is a sample structure of a Bloomreach formatted product record:

{
  "op": "add",
  "path": "/products/435898",
  "value": {
    "attributes": {
      "title": "Three-Pocket Straight Leg Jeans",
      "price": 70,
      "description": "For the most flattering fit, these gorgeous straight leg jeans have a great mid-rise.",
      "brand": "Acme",
      "example_bool": true,
      "keywords": ["straight leg", "mid-rise", "back pockets", "three pocket"],
      "url": "http://www.example.com/435898-Three-Pocket-Straight-Leg-Jeans.aspx",
      "thumb_image": "http://www.images.example.com/three-pocket-straight-leg-jeans-435898-thumbnail.jpg",
      "large_image": "http://www.images.example.com/435898/435-92-jj-202.jpg|three-pocket-straight-leg-jeans-435898.jpg",
      "reviews": 3.5,
      "review_count": 3
    },
    "variants": {
      "43589801": {
        "attributes": {
          "size": "xlarge",
          "availability": true
        }
      },
      "43589802": {
        "attributes": {
          "size": "large",
          "availability": true
        }
      }
    },
    "views": {
      "viewID_1": {
        "attributes": {
          "price": 41
        }
      },
      "viewID_2": {
        "attributes": {
          "price": 60
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

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op and path

Every product record requires the op and path properties.

  • op defines the type of operation to be performed on the catalog with this record. Values allowed are “add” (which can also replace) and “remove”.
  • path identifies a specific product record, or a specific portion of a product record, to be operated on. To operate on an entire product record, the path value should be "/products/{product_id}". The product_id for a given product should be the same in both your catalog data and your pixel. To operate on a specific portion of a product record, refer to the Patch Operation Use Cases for the correct path value.

Patch operations

The PATCH operations possible on your product record are given below:

  • Add/replace a product
  • Remove a product
  • Add/replace product attributes
  • Remove product attributes
  • Add/replace a product attribute
  • Remove a product attribute

Attributes

Each product is defined by its attributes, which can include characteristics (such as color or size) and inventory data (such as price or description).

The attributes property specifies the product’s base product attributes. If you have variants and/or views, base product attributes remain identical across all product variants or product views, unless they are overridden in a view.

"attributes": {   
  "title": "Three-Pocket Straight Leg Jeans",
  "price": 70.00, 
  "description": "For the most flattering fit, these gorgeous straight leg jeans have a great mid-rise.",  
  "brand": "Acme",
  "example_bool": true,
  "keywords": ["straight leg", "mid-rise", "back pockets", "three pocket"], 
}

Reserved Attributes

There are reserved attributes that Bloomreach understands and treats specially. Reserved attributes have a preset name and need to be supplied in the format expected by Bloomreach.

Categories

To place a product in a category, add the reserved attribute: category_paths. If added, category_paths requires a name and id for each category to make sure Bloomreach can understand the data you're submitting.

🚧

category_paths must be sent as an array of arrays, even if it only contains a single path.

In the example below, the product is assigned to categories apparel > petites > pants > denim and apparel > women > jeans. Categories should be declared in order from top to bottom, and the id should be unique and consistent with the corresponding category name.

"attributes": {
  "category_paths": [
    [{
      "name": "apparel",
      //"apparel" is the top-level category
      "id": "1"
    },
    {
      "name": "petites",
      //"petites" is a subcategory under "apparel"
      "id": "4"
    },
    {
      "name": "pants",
      //"pants" is a subcategory under "petites"
      "id": "15"
    },
    {
      "name": "denim",
      //"denim" is a subcategory under "pants"
      "id": "16"
    }],
    [{
      "name": "apparel",
      //"apparel" is the top-level category
      "id": "1"     
    },
    {
      "name": "women",
      //"women" is a subcategory under "apparel"
      "id": "2"
    },
    {
      "name": "jeans",
      //"jeans" is a subcategory under "women"
      "id": "35"
    }]
  ]
}

Dynamic Attributes

If an attribute is not one of the reserved attributes, it is considered to be a dynamic attribute. Dynamic attributes may be given any name that is not reserved and any value of a supported value type.

  • Dynamic attribute names - must consist of alphanumeric (A-Z, 0-9), space, or underscore ( _ ) characters only, and should not start with a digit or space.
  • Dynamic attribute values - supported types include string, integer, float, boolean, or a homogeneous array of those types. Objects are not currently supported, so if you have objects of arbitrary depths, you would need to flatten them out.

Sending irrelevant attributes or information will increase data ingestion and indexing time, and may impact request latency.

Max length of any single-value attribute value must be less than 1KB. For a multi-valued attribute (array), the max length of a single element's value must be less than 1KB.

Variants

Variants are a sellable variation of a base product.

The variants property contains all of the product’s variants (typically SKUs). Each variant is identified by a variant_id, which must be unique to the particular product.

Each variant has a nested attributes property that is similar to the base product attributes property. Every attribute that varies must be specified within the attributes property of each variant. Attributes that are identical across all variants should be specified as base product attributes instead. Refer the Attributes section for more information about attribute values.

An example variants property is given below:

"attributes": {   
  "price": 70,
  "description": "For the most flattering fit, these gorgeous straight leg jeans have a great mid-rise.",         
  "brand": "Acme"
},
//Base product attributes are inherited by all variants, so all variants share the “price”, “description”, and "brand" attributes here
"variants": {
  "43589801": { 
  //Variant ID
    "attributes": {
      "size": "xlarge", 
      //“size” is an attribute that varies
    }
  },
  "43589802": {
    "attributes": {
      "size": "large",
    }
  }
}

Patch operations

The PATCH operations available on Variants are given below:

  • Add/replace variants of a product
  • Remove variants of a product
  • Add/replace a variant to a product
  • Remove a variant to a product
  • Add/replace variant attributes
  • Remove variant attributes
  • Add/replace a variant attribute
  • Remove a variant attribute

Views

Views are used to associate different versions of a product or variant to certain viewers, typically for different stores or markets. For example, suppose you had two views, West and East. You could have a product that costs one price in the West view and a different price in the East view, or you could have a product that is only available in the West view.

Product views indicate that the product exists in a specific catalog view and contain the product’s view-specific attributes. The views property contains all of a product’s views. Each view is identified by a view_id.

If you are using Bloomreach Views functionality, the views property is required for every product and ALL of the views a product exists in must be supplied for every product.

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View overrides

Attributes declared within a product view are combined with the base product attributes. If the same attribute is declared for the base product and within the product view, then the product view attribute overrides the base product attribute.

For example, if the base product attributes include "price": 10.00 and the product view attributes include "price": 15.00, then the view will use "price": 15.00.

An example views property is given below:

"views": {
  "viewID_1": {
  //View ID
    "attributes": {
    //View-specific attributes
      "price": 41.00 //Price in viewID_1
    }
  },
  "viewID_2": {
    "attributes": {
      "price": 60.00 //Price in viewID_2
    }
  }
}

Patch Operations

The PATCH operations available for views of a product are given below:

  • Add/replace views for a product
  • Remove views for a product
  • Add/replace a view for a product
  • Remove a view for a product
  • Add/replace view attributes for a product
  • Remove view attributes for a product
  • Add/replace a view attribute for a product
  • Remove a view attribute for a product

Variants and Views

If you have both variants and views, any view-specific attributes or overrides should be specified within a variants property nested inside that views property. Variant attributes that are identical across all views should be specified in the top-level variants property instead.

📘

Variant view overrides

Variant attributes declared within a product view are combined with the attributes specified in the top-level variants property. If the same attribute is declared for the base product and within the product view, then the variant view attribute overrides the attribute specified in the top-level variants property.

For example, if the top-level variants property includes "price": 10.00 and the variant view includes "price": 15.00, then the variant will use "price": 15.00 in that view.

An example views property with variants is given below:

"variants": {
  "43589801": {
    "attributes": {
      //Variant attributes for all views it exists in
      "price": 10.00 //Price for all views without a variant view override
    }
  }
},
"views": {
  "viewID_1": {
  //View ID
    "attributes": {
      //Attributes shared by all variants in the view
      ...
    },
    "variants": {
    //Nested variants property within the view
      "43589801": {
        "attributes": {
          //Place view-specific variant attributes or overrides here
          "price": 15.00 //Variant view override, price of this variant will be 15.00 in this view
          ...
        }
      }
    }
  },
  "viewID_2": {}
  //View with no view-specific variant overrides must still be included if the product exists in that view
}

Exclude a variant from a view

Variants are included by default in all views. To exclude a variant from a view, add this attribute within that variant’s property: “exclude_from_view”: true.

You can include the variant again by setting the value to false, or by removing the exclude_from_view attribute.

"views": {
  "viewID_1": {
    "attributes": {
      ...
    },
    "variants": {
      "43589801": {
        "exclude_from_view": true 
        //exclude_from_view is nested within the variant ID, but outside “attributes”
        "attributes": {
          ...
        }
      }
    }
  },
  ...
}

Add/replace a complete product with views, variants, and variant views

The sample product record below has 3 variants and 3 views.

  • In the "ae" view, one variant has been excluded
  • In the "us" view, one variant has overrides, and the other two have no view-specific variant attributes
  • In the “it” view, no overrides are provided
{
  "op": "add",
  "path": "/products/435898",
  "value": {
    "attributes": { 
      "title": "Three-Pocket Straight Leg Jeans",
      "department": "apparel"
      "brand": "Acme",
      "keywords": ["straight leg", "mid-rise", "back pockets", "three pocket"], 
    },
    "variants": {
      "43589801": {
        "attributes": {
          "size": "onesize",
        }
      },
      "43589802": {
        "attributes": {
          "description": "For the most flattering fit, these gorgeous straight leg jeans have a great mid-rise.",
        }
      },
      "43589803": {
        "attributes": {
          "image": "localhost/image.png",
        }
      }
    },
    "views": {
      "ae": {
        "attributes": {
          "currency": "AED",
        }, 
        "variants": {
          "43589801": {
            "attributes": {
              "availability": true,
              "price": 106.00,
              "color": "blue",
            }
          },
          "43589802": {
            "attributes": {
              "availability": true,
              "price": 53.00,
              "color": "red",
            }
          },
          "43589803": {
            "exclude_from_view": true
          }
        }
      },
      "us": { 
        "variants": { 
          "43589801": { 
            "attributes": {
              "availability": true,
              "price": 41.00,
              "size": "one",
            }
          }
        }
      },
      "it": {} 
      //No overrides, product and all variants have base values in "it" view
    }
  }
}

The above product would have these attributes:

Attribute

Base product

"ae" view

"us" view

"it" view

product_id

435898

435898

435898

435898

title

Three-Pocket Straight Leg Jeans

Three-Pocket Straight Leg Jeans

Three-Pocket Straight Leg Jeans

Three-Pocket Straight Leg Jeans

department

apparel

apparel

apparel

apparel

brand

Acme

Acme

Acme

Acme

keywords

straight leg, mid-rise, back pockets, three pocket

straight leg, mid-rise, back pockets, three pocket

straight leg, mid-rise, back pockets, three pocket

straight leg, mid-rise, back pockets, three pocket

currency

N/A

AED

N/A

N/A

variant
43589801

"size": "onesize"

"size": "onesize"
"availability": true
"price": 106.00
"color": "blue"

"size": "one"
"availability": true
"price": 41.00

"size": "onesize"

variant
43589802

"description": "For the most flattering fit, these gorgeous straight leg jeans have a great mid-rise."

"description": "For the most flattering fit, these gorgeous straight leg jeans have a great mid-rise."
"availability": true
"price": 53.00
"color": "red"

"description": "For the most flattering fit, these gorgeous straight leg jeans have a great mid-rise."

"description": "For the most flattering fit, these gorgeous straight leg jeans have a great mid-rise."

variant
43589803

"image": "localhost/image.png"

excluded from this view

"image": "localhost/image.png"

"image": "localhost/image.png"

Patch operations

The PATCH operations for Variant View data are given below:

  • Add/replace variants view data
  • Remove variants view data
  • Add/replace variant view data
  • Remove variant view data
  • Add/replace variant view attributes
  • Remove variant view attributes
  • Add/replace a variant view attribute
  • Remove a variant view attribute

Character Set Specification

Identifier

Character Set Specifications

products

Supported characters: ASCII printable characters set

Reserved characters: "~", "/", and space characters such as SPACE, TAB, LINE FEED, etc.

Unicode characters are broadly allowed with few restrictions. However, these should be tested for different use cases.

variants

Supported characters: ASCII printable characters set

Reserved characters: "~", "/", and space characters such as SPACE, TAB, LINE FEED, etc.

Unicode characters are broadly allowed with few restrictions. However, these should be tested for different use cases.

views

Supported characters: ASCII printable characters set

Reserved characters: "~", "/", and space characters such as SPACE, TAB, LINE FEED, etc.

Unicode characters are broadly allowed with few restrictions. However, these should be tested for different use cases.